Sunday, May 24, 2020
Thesis In Warrior Nations: The United States and Indian Peoples by Roger L. Nichols, provides six main acts that accounts for the majority of the reasons the Indians and the Americans fought. Nichols wants readers to have an accurate account on the whys of each war and how each conflict is related with each other- with each conflict is interlock in one single web of American-Indian relations. The six reasons provide are the key threads that that locks the conflicts together. NicholÃ¢â¬â¢s attributes these six actions and ideas that led to the conflicts between Americans and Indians: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Americans intolerances towards Indians and their actions that reflect that. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Americans continuous demands for IndianÃ¢â¬â¢s land. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s inability or unwillingness to punish those who inflicts injury in violence. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Indians militarize nature and the ceremonies that reflect their high opinions of physical conflict. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Indian men were require to protecting their clan and acting out revenges. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Indians unwillingness to give up their lands, culture, traditions, and tribal independence. Knowing the reasons for events helps develop a deeper understanding of an event or a series events than just learning who attacks who and what comes about it. It also allows us to learn from our past mistakes, to prevent unnecessarily conflict, and to learn what not to do to solve a given problem. Due to the complicated analysis of Indian/American relation the author wrote about, Warrior Nations is obviously notShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesOrganizational Behavior This page intentionally left blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins Ã¢â¬âSan Diego State University Timothy A. Judge Ã¢â¬âUniversity of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services:
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
With a peak elevation of 29,035 feet (8850 meters), the top of Mount Everest is the worlds highest point above sea level. As the worlds highest mountain, climbing to the top of Mount Everest has been a goal of many mountain climbers for many decades. Geography and Climate Mount Everest is located on the border of Nepal and Tibet. Mount Everest is part of the Himalayas, the 1500-mileÃ¢â¬âlong (2414-kilometerÃ¢â¬âlong) mountain system that was formed when the Indo-Australian plate crashed into the Eurasian plate. The Himalayas rose in response to the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Eurasian plate. The Himalayan mountains continue to rise a few centimeters each year as the Indo-Australian plate continues moving northward into and under the Eurasian plate. The peak of Mount Everest has three somewhat flat sides; it is said to be shaped like a three-sided pyramid. Glaciers and ice cover the sides of the mountain. In July, temperatures can get as high as nearly zero degrees Fahrenheit (about -18 degrees Celsius). In January, temperatures drop to as low as -76 degrees F (-60 degrees C). Names of the Mountain Local names for Mount Everest include Chomolungma in Tibetan (which means Goddess mother of the world) and Sagarmatha (which means Ocean mother) in Sanskrit. Indian surveyor Radhanath Sikdar, part of the British-led Survey of India, determined in 1852 that Mount Everest was the tallest mountain in the world and established an initial elevation of 29,000 feet. The mountainÃ was known as Peak XV by the British until 1865 when itÃ was named after Sir George Everest, who served as the Surveyor General of India from 1830 to 1843.Ã Expeditions to the Top of Mount Everest Despite the extreme cold, hurricane-force winds, and low oxygen levels (about one-third of the oxygen in the atmosphere as at sea level), climbers seek to successfully climb Mount Everest every year. Since the first historic climb of New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Tenzing Norgay in 1953, more than 2000 people have successfully climbed Mount Everest. Unfortunately, due to the hazards and rigors of climbing such a dangerous mountain, over 200 have died attempting to climbÃ¢â¬âmaking the death rate for Mount Everest climbers about 1 in 10. Nonetheless, in the late spring or summer months (the climbing season), there can be tens of climbers attempting to reach the peak of Mount Everest each day. The cost to climb Mount Everest is substantial. The permit from the government of Nepal can run from $10,000 to $25,000 per person, depending on the number in a group of climbers. Add to that equipment, Sherpa guides, additional permits, helicopters, and other essentials, and the cost per person can be well over $65,000. 1999 Elevation of Mount Everest In 1999, climbers using GPS (Global Positioning System) equipment determined a new height for Mount Everest: 29,035 feet above sea level, seven feet (2.1 meters) above the previously accepted height of 29,028 feet. The climb to determine the accurate height was co-sponsored by the National Geographic Society and Bostons Museum of Science. This new height 0f 29,035 feet was immediately and widely accepted. Mount Everest vs. Mauna Kea While Mount Everest can claim the record for the highest point above sea level, the tallest mountain on earth from the base of the mountain to the peak of the mountain is, in fact, Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Mauna Kea is 33,480 feet (10,204 meters) high from the base (at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean) to peak. However, it only rises to 13,796 feet (4205 meters) above sea level. Regardless of this competition, Mount Everest will always be famous for its extreme height that reaches nearly five and a half miles (8.85 km) into the sky.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Where is everyone?Ã¢â¬ Susan wondered as she crossed the deserted Crypto floor. Some emergency. Although most NSA departments were fully staffed seven days a week, Crypto was generally quiet on Saturdays. We will write a custom essay sample on Digital Fortress Chapter 5 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Cryptographic mathematicians were by nature high-strung workaholics, and there existed an unwritten rule that they take Saturdays off except in emergencies. Code-breakers were too valuable a commodity at the NSA to risk losing them to burnout. As Susan traversed the floor, TRANSLTR loomed to her right. The sound of the generators eight stories below sounded oddly ominous today. Susan never liked being in Crypto during off hours. It was like being trapped alone in a cage with some grand, futuristic beast. She quickly made her way toward the commanderÃ¢â¬â¢s office. StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s glass-walled workstation, nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"the fishbowlÃ¢â¬ for its appearance when the drapes were open, stood high atop a set of catwalk stairs on the back wall of Crypto. As Susan climbed the grated steps, she gazed upward at StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s thick, oak door. It bore the NSA seal-a bald eagle fiercely clutching an ancient skeleton key. Behind that door sat one of the greatest men sheÃ¢â¬â¢d ever met. Commander Strathmore, the fifty-six-year-old deputy director of operations, was like a father to Susan. He was the one whoÃ¢â¬â¢d hired her, and he was the one whoÃ¢â¬â¢d made the NSA her home. When Susan joined the NSA over a decade ago, Strathmore was heading the Crypto Development Division-a training ground for new cryptographers-new male cryptographers. Although Strathmore never tolerated the hazing of anyone, he was especially protective of his sole female staff member. When accused of favoritism, he simply replied with the truth: Susan Fletcher was one of the brightest young recruits heÃ¢â¬â¢d ever seen, and he had no intention of losing her to sexual harassment. One of the cryptographers foolishly decided to test StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s resolve. One morning during her first year, Susan dropped by the new cryptographersÃ¢â¬â¢ lounge to get some paperwork. As she left, she noticed a picture of herself on the bulletin board. She almost fainted in embarrassment. There she was, reclining on a bed and wearing only panties. As it turned out, one of the cryptographers had digitally scanned a photo from a pornographic magazine and edited SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s head onto someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s body. The effect had been quite convincing. Unfortunately for the cryptographer responsible, Commander Strathmore did not find the stunt even remotely amusing. Two hours later, a landmark memo went out: EMPLOYEE CARL AUSTIN TERMINATED FOR INAPPROPRIATE CONDUCT. From that day on, nobody messed with her; Susan Fletcher was Commander StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s golden girl. But StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s young cryptographers were not the only ones who learned to respect him; early in his career Strathmore made his presence known to his superiors by proposing a number of unorthodox and highly successful intelligence operations. As he moved up the ranks, Trevor Strathmore became known for his cogent, reductive analyses of highly complex situations. He seemed to have an uncanny ability to see past the moral perplexities surrounding the NSAÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult decisions and to act without remorse in the interest of the common good. There was no doubt in anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind that Strathmore loved his country. He was known to his colleagues as a patriot and a visionaryÃ¢â¬ ¦ a decent man in a world of lies. In the years since SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival at the NSA, Strathmore had skyrocketed from head of Crypto Development to second-in-command of the entire NSA. Now only one man outranked Commander Strathmore there-Director Leland Fontaine, the mythical overlord of the Puzzle Palace-never seen, occasionally heard, and eternally feared. He and Strathmore seldom saw eye to eye, and when they met, it was like the clash of the titans. Fontaine was a giant among giants, but Strathmore didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to care. He argued his ideas to the director with all the restraint of an impassioned boxer. Not even the President of the United States dared challenge Fontaine the way Strathmore did. One needed political immunity to do that-or, in StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s case, political indifference. Susan arrived at the top of the stairs. Before she could knock, StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s electronic door lock buzzed. The door swung open, and the commander waved her in. Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks for coming, Susan. I owe you one.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not at all.Ã¢â¬ She smiled as she sat opposite his desk. Strathmore was a rangy, thick-fleshed man whose muted features somehow disguised his hard-nosed efficiency and demand for perfection. His gray eyes usually suggested a confidence and discretion born from experience, but today they looked wild and unsettled. Ã¢â¬Å"You look beat,Ã¢â¬ Susan said. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been better.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore sighed. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll say, she thought. Strathmore looked as bad as Susan had ever seen him. His thinning gray hair was disheveled, and even in the roomÃ¢â¬â¢s crisp air-conditioning, his forehead was beaded with sweat. He looked like heÃ¢â¬â¢d slept in his suit. He was sitting behind a modern desk with two recessed keypads and a computer monitor at one end. It was strewn with computer printouts and looked like some sort of alien cockpit propped there in the center of his curtained chamber. Ã¢â¬Å"Tough week?Ã¢â¬ she inquired. Strathmore shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"The usual. The EFFÃ¢â¬â¢s all over me about civilian privacy rights again.Ã¢â¬ Susan chuckled. The EFF, or Electronics Frontier Foundation, was a worldwide coalition of computer users who had founded a powerful civil liberties coalition aimed at supporting free speech on-line and educating others to the realities and dangers of living in an electronic world. They were constantly lobbying against what they called Ã¢â¬Å"the Orwellian eavesdropping capabilities of government agenciesÃ¢â¬ -particularly the NSA. The EFF was a perpetual thorn in StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s side. Ã¢â¬Å"Sounds like business as usual,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"So whatÃ¢â¬â¢s this big emergency you got me out of the tub for?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore sat a moment, absently fingering the computer trackball embedded in his desktop. After a long silence, he caught SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s gaze and held it. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the longest youÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever seen TRANSLTR take to break a code?Ã¢â¬ The question caught Susan entirely off guard. It seemed meaningless. This is what he called me in for? Ã¢â¬Å"WellÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She hesitated. Ã¢â¬Å"We hit a COMINT intercept a few months ago that took about an hour, but it had a ridiculously long key-ten thousand bits or something like that.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore grunted. Ã¢â¬Å"An hour, huh? What about some of the boundary probes weÃ¢â¬â¢ve run?Ã¢â¬ Susan shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, if you include diagnostics, itÃ¢â¬â¢s obviously longer.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How much longer?Ã¢â¬ Susan couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine what Strathmore was getting at. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, sir, I tried an algorithm last March with a segmented million-bit key. Illegal looping functions, cellular automata, the works. TRANSLTR still broke it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How long?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Three hours.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore arched his eyebrows. Ã¢â¬Å"Three hours? That long?Ã¢â¬ Susan frowned, mildly offended. Her job for the last three years had been to fine-tune the most secret computer in the world; most of the programming that made TRANSLTR so fast was hers. A million-bit key was hardly a realistic scenario. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay,Ã¢â¬ Strathmore said. Ã¢â¬Å"So even in extreme conditions, the longest a code has ever survived inside TRANSLTR is about three hours?Ã¢â¬ Susan nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. More or less.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore paused as if afraid to say something he might regret. Finally he looked up. Ã¢â¬Å"TRANSLTRÃ¢â¬â¢s hit somethingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He stopped. Susan waited. Ã¢â¬Å"More than three hours?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore nodded. She looked unconcerned. Ã¢â¬Å"A new diagnostic? Something from the Sys-Sec Department?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an outside file.Ã¢â¬ Susan waited for the punch line, but it never came. Ã¢â¬Å"An outside file? YouÃ¢â¬â¢re joking, right?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I wish. I queued it last night around eleven thirty. It hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t broken yet.Ã¢â¬ SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s jaw dropped. She looked at her watch and then back at Strathmore. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s still going? Over fifteen hours?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore leaned forward and rotated his monitor toward Susan. The screen was black except for a small, yellow text box blinking in the middle. TIME ELAPSED: 15:09:33 AWAITING KEY: ________ Susan stared in amazement. It appeared TRANSLTR had been working on one code for over fifteen hours. She knew the computerÃ¢â¬â¢s processors auditioned thirty million keys per second-one hundred billion per hour. If TRANSLTR was still counting, that meant the key had to be enormous-over ten billion digits long. It was absolute insanity. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible!Ã¢â¬ she declared. Ã¢â¬Å"Have you checked for error flags? Maybe TRANSLTR hit a glitch and-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"The runÃ¢â¬â¢s clean.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But the pass-key must be huge!Ã¢â¬ Strathmore shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"Standard commercial algorithm. IÃ¢â¬â¢m guessing a sixty-four-bit key.Ã¢â¬ Mystified, Susan looked out the window at TRANSLTR below. She knew from experience that it could locate a sixty-four-bit key in under ten minutes. Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s got to be some explanation.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"There is. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re not going to like it.Ã¢â¬ Susan looked uneasy. Ã¢â¬Å"Is TRANSLTR malfunctioning?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"TRANSLTRÃ¢â¬â¢s fine.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Have we got a virus?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"No virus. Just hear me out.Ã¢â¬ Susan was flabbergasted. TRANSLTR had never hit a code it couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t break in under an hour. Usually the cleartext was delivered to StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s printout module within minutes. She glanced at the high-speed printer behind his desk. It was empty. Ã¢â¬Å"Susan,Ã¢â¬ Strathmore said quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"This is going to be hard to accept at first, but just listen a minute.Ã¢â¬ He chewed his lip. Ã¢â¬Å"This code that TRANSLTRÃ¢â¬â¢s working on-itÃ¢â¬â¢s unique. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like nothing weÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever seen before.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore paused, as if the words were hard for him to say. Ã¢â¬Å"This code is unbreakable.Ã¢â¬ Susan stared at him and almost laughed. Unbreakable? What was THAT supposed to mean? There was no such thing as an unbreakable code-some took longer than others, but every code was breakable. It was mathematically guaranteed that sooner or later TRANSLTR would guess the right key. Ã¢â¬Å"I beg your pardon?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The codeÃ¢â¬â¢s unbreakable,Ã¢â¬ he repeated flatly. Unbreakable? Susan couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe the word had been uttered by a man with twenty-seven years of code analysis experience. Ã¢â¬Å"Unbreakable, sir?Ã¢â¬ she said uneasily. Ã¢â¬Å"What about the Bergofsky Principle?Ã¢â¬ Susan had learned about the Bergofsky Principle early in her career. It was a cornerstone of brute-force technology. It was also StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration for building TRANSLTR. The principle clearly stated that if a computer tried enough keys, it was mathematically guaranteed to find the right one. A codeÃ¢â¬â¢s security was not that its pass-key was unfindable but rather that most people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the time or equipment to try. Strathmore shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"This codeÃ¢â¬â¢s different.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Different?Ã¢â¬ Susan eyed him askance. An unbreakable code is a mathematical impossibility! He knows that! Strathmore ran a hand across his sweaty scalp. Ã¢â¬Å"This code is the product of a brand-new encryption algorithm-one weÃ¢â¬â¢ve never seen before.Ã¢â¬ Now Susan was even more doubtful. Encryption algorithms were just mathematical formulas, recipes for scrambling text into code. Mathematicians and programmers created new algorithms every day. There were hundreds of them on the market-PGP, Diffie-Hellman, ZIP, IDEA, El Gamal. TRANSLTR broke all of their codes every day, no problem. To TRANSLTR all codes looked identical, regardless of which algorithm wrote them. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand,Ã¢â¬ she argued. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re not talking about reverse-engineering some complex function, weÃ¢â¬â¢re talking brute force. PGP, Lucifer, DSA-it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter. The algorithm generates a key it thinks is secure, and TRANSLTR keeps guessing until it finds it.Ã¢â¬ StrathmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s reply had the controlled patience of a good teacher. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, Susan, TRANSLTR will always find the key-even if itÃ¢â¬â¢s huge.Ã¢â¬ He paused a long moment. Ã¢â¬Å"UnlessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Susan wanted to speak, but it was clear Strathmore was about to drop his bomb. Unless what? Ã¢â¬Å"Unless the computer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know when itÃ¢â¬â¢s broken the code.Ã¢â¬ Susan almost fell out of her chair. Ã¢â¬Å"What!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Unless the computer guesses the correct key but just keeps guessing because it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize it found the right key.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore looked bleak. Ã¢â¬Å"I think this algorithm has got a rotating cleartext.Ã¢â¬ Susan gaped. The notion of a rotating cleartext function was first put forth in an obscure, 1987 paper by a Hungarian mathematician, Josef Harne. Because brute-force computers broke codes by examining cleartext for identifiable word patterns, Harne proposed an encryption algorithm that, in addition to encrypting, shifted decrypted cleartext over a time variant. In theory, the perpetual mutation would ensure that the attacking computer would never locate recognizable word patterns and thus never know when it had found the proper key. The concept was somewhat like the idea of colonizing Mars-fathomable on an intellectual level, but, at present, well beyond human ability. Ã¢â¬Å"Where did you get this thing?Ã¢â¬ she demanded. The commanderÃ¢â¬â¢s response was slow. Ã¢â¬Å"A public sector programmer wrote it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ Susan collapsed back in her chair. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve got the best programmers in the world downstairs! All of us working together have never even come close to writing a rotating cleartext function. Are you trying to tell me some punk with a PC figured out how to do it?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore lowered his voice in an apparent effort to calm her. Ã¢â¬Å"I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t call this guy a punk.Ã¢â¬ Susan wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t listening. She was convinced there had to be some other explanation: A glitch. A virus. Anything was more likely than an unbreakable code. Strathmore eyed her sternly. Ã¢â¬Å"One of the most brilliant cryptographic minds of all time wrote this algorithm.Ã¢â¬ Susan was more doubtful than ever; the most brilliant cryptographic minds of all time were in her department, and she certainly would have heard about an algorithm like this. Ã¢â¬Å"Who?Ã¢â¬ she demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure you can guess.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore said. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s not too fond of the NSA.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, that narrows it down!Ã¢â¬ she snapped sarcastically. Ã¢â¬Å"He worked on the TRANSLTR project. He broke the rules. Almost caused an intelligence nightmare. I deported him.Ã¢â¬ SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s face was blank only an instant before going white. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh my GodÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Strathmore nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s been bragging all year about his work on a brute-force-resistant algorithm.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"B-butÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Susan stammered. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought he was bluffing. He actually did it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He did. The ultimate unbreakable code-writer.Ã¢â¬ Susan was silent a long moment. Ã¢â¬Å"ButÃ¢â¬ ¦ that meansÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Strathmore looked her dead in the eye. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. Ensei Tankado just made TRANSLTR obsolete.Ã¢â¬ How to cite Digital Fortress Chapter 5, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Toxicology Occupational Health and Hygiene. Answer: Introduction: Multinational companies often send employees abroad to introduce their products and services in new markets. This not only provides new opportunities to employees, but also exposes them to security and health related risk as a result of working in unfamiliar conditions. The need for global security in organization has risen because of business interruption and health and safety issues experienced by employees due to natural disasters and terrorism acts (Leggat and Zuckerman 2015). Hence, it is the legal and moral obligation of organization to safeguard workers, who travel overseas in addition to protecting physical asset of organization. However, the current issue is that many employers are sending employees abroad without evaluation of risk and consideration about critical resource for travelers. This endangers employee and exposes organization to legal consequences too (Many Firms Fail to Protect Workers Traveling, Living Abroad 2017). As a Health and Safety Manager for an organization with 1000 staff, the review of the organizational policies and procedures has revealed that the organization do not provide adequate protection to their employees who travel overseas. As staffs who travel worldwide for meeting and conference have diverse gender and travel experience, it is necessary they follow appropriate procedures of health and safety in international travel. Hence, this report provides evidence and discussion regarding the importance of following legislation for health and safety for overseas travel to protects employees and the steps that needs to be considered for putting appropriate procedure in place. Discussion on health and safety surrounding international travel: Legislation related to health and safety for employees going overseas for work From the legal perspective, it is important that organization consider the risk and workplace safety for employees going abroad for work. This is because the Singapore Duty of Care legislation imposes a duty of care on the employer towards their employees. This has come up from common laws such as Employment Act and Workplace Safety and Health Act (WHSA) that looks after employment and welfare issues of employees. The Duty of Care policy imposed a legal obligation for employers to take reasonable steps to ensure health and safety of employees who need to travel on work. The WSHA encompasses a liability regime on employers which is summarizes as follows: To proactively identify and eliminate risk and hazards at workplace. To maintain minimum health and safety standards at workplace To eliminate foreseeable risk to employees while on work related duties (The Singapore Employers Duty of Care on Workplace Safety Health when Employees Travel 2017). This legislation can also be applied for employees who travel overseas for work because definition of workplace in the Act means any premise where an employee is at work. Hence, this reasoning makes it clear that an employers responsibility towards employee extends beyond the primary work place. Therefore, as a Health and Safety Manager for an organization, it is the duty to ensure that employees travelling overseas are also adequately protected with safe and reasonable procedures. The action of little exposure of employees to risk might result in civil claims for the organization due to breach of legislative duty as an employer. Hence, to avoid criminal liability and avoid the need for compensating employees for risk according to the Work Injury Compensation Act, it is necessary to establish effective procedures for Health and Safety in relation to international travel (Hood et al. 2016). Identification of risk surrounding lack of protection of employee going overseas The above explanation on legal implications for employees presents the risk and legal liability for workers if they do not consider the health and safety of workers who travel abroad for work. However, it is most important to prevent risk to workers when they travel in unfamiliar countries. Some of the risk that a worker may get exposed without reasonable safety procedures in organizations includes the following: Health risk: Health risk is top most challenges and concern for employees travelling overseas. According to the CDC report, for every 1 lakh employees travelling abroad, about fifty thousand of them are experiencing some form of health issues. Another unfortunate finding is that only 10% of international business travelers received pre-travel health care. Employees are most likely to be exposed to outbreak of disease in host countries. This may include severe diseases like Hepatitis A, avian flu, Influenza virus, Ebola and Zika virus to common ailments such as gastric disorders. The risk may vary for individuals according to location of the country. Due to this cost, the cost spent on treatment and prevention of disease increases and the goal of international visit is defeated (CDC Traveler's Health 2017). Lack of awareness about culture priorities, local laws and language of the area: Serious communications issues and other consequences is also faced by workers when they are ignorant of foreign laws and cultural preference in the country. Lack of knowledge about appropriate dress or eating habits might trigger hostility in foreign country. Employees must also have basis knowledge about language and common gestures. If they are not trained in this area, they are bound to face many issues while on international visits. This might disrupt simple task of buying food to moving around in the city too (People Management Magazine Online 2017). Exposure to risk from crime, political instability and civil unrest and terrorism: Political unrest might be a serious hazard for workers travelling to unfamiliar countries. The exposure may be high when business operates in high risk locations. The level of difficulties for employees may range from travel disruptions to personal safety risk due to violence and conflicts. Apart from this, travelers might also be exposed to crimes and assaults, which might lead to compensatory implications for organization. Recently, terrorism has also started affecting travelers and workers (Smith 2014). Methods to put up procedure into place for safety of employees travelling abroad Considering the risk to employees and employers in the absence of appropriate procedure for management of international travel, it will be essential to establish a systematic procedure in the organization. A detailed and comprehensive plan will ensure well-being of employees during international visits and conference. Apart from the initial step of analyzing the risk in specific country of visit, monitoring workers while they travel globally will also be important. This is dependent not just on development of extensive plan, but also on arranging infrastructure to maintain safety of travelers. The success and compliance to duty of care will also depend on sharing the goal of safety and well-being for employees with HR professional and other stakeholders such as staffs involved in risk management and travel and security issues. This stepwise process indicate that the safety and health management of employees initiates when the culture of organization recognize the well-being of employ ee. This will ensure minimum standards of safety are maintained for all employees at work (Smith 2014). In accordance with the above plan of setting procedure for health and safety of workers travelling abroad, the systematic process that can be followed in the organization includes the following: Risk assessment: The first responsibility for organization will be to establish a documented process of identifies all categories of hazards for employees and accordingly implementing risk control for all those measures. This stage will require the contribution of work health and safety professionals and middle manager with expertise on international travel management. They will play the key role in preparing backup plan and controls for mitigating the risk. Other responsibilities of this staff will include preparing hazard checklist and manuals for employees going to particular countries and distributing them to employees scheduled for a visit in particular location (Leder et al. 2015). The responsibility will not end after the workers have gone, tracking employees while they are overseas will also be important. Infrastructure support will be needed for this endeavor and investment in database tracking system give help to collect information, send, and receive hazards alerts. In add ition, to maximize protection and communication with employees while they are working abroad, employers can also set up a 24 hour helpline for guidance on required action during unanticipated events (Harvey 2013). Strategies to eliminate risk to employees before going on foreign visits: To prevent the risk of contracting disease among employees while on international tour, it will be necessary for the organization to ensure that employees trained and prepared adequately before travelling. This training will give information to employees about general weather, local laws and policies and procedures of the visiting organization (Costa et al., 2015). Secondly, all arrangements will be made to provide access to medical support and adequate health care for them while travelling. The Health and Safety Manager of the organization will also have the responsibility to implement preventive measures in organization before travelling. This will include providing first aid kits and health cared to employees and arranging immunization or vaccination programs in the organization. This systematic method of immunization and health related safety of workers will be achieved by collaboration with international h ealth care providers abroad so that workers do not face difficulty in seeking medical service abroad (Harvey 2013). To address the issue of risk to employees from violence and political unrest in foreign countries, organizations can prepare for it beforehand. This starts from the initial process of assessing potential risk in business locations that employees are scheduled to visit and comparing them with the profile of the employee. This is important because an employee who has visited the same country for business purpose before may be conversant with the local norms and process to control risk, however a novice may not be conversant with the way to deal with it (Mkel et al. 2015). Therefore, it should be made a priority to provide all necessary information and security related advice to employees for living in a foreign country and making them aware of ways to avoid risk. If a company has enough financial resource, they must also provide housing with adequate security support. Another precaution that employees should take is that they must not carry things of monetary values with them during ov erseas visit (Mkel et al. 2015). Tracking and assisting employees while they are on international visit: Business organizations sending their employees abroad must establish a systematic process in place for tracking and assisting employees to monitor and communicate at any time. Tracking systems enable constant monitoring of employees during travels. A travel app on employees personal device might also help to monitor risk (Brown 2017). However, one ethical that might arise with this system is that many employees disregard them as they invade their privacy. However, this step can be eliminated if employees understand their responsibility too and comply with all the organizational procedure during travel and checking in with headquarters. Conclusion: The report presented the legal obligations of employers according to the Duty of Care to protect employees who travel internationally for work. According to this legal framework laid down by the Employment Act and WHSA Act, it has become a legal and moral obligation to provide health and safety to employees even when they are abroad. This is also necessary because unfamiliar environment in foreign countries and lack of knowledge regarding local norms and law exposes employee to many risk. Some of the risk discussed in the report includes health risk, security related risk from political unrest and violence in foreign countries and hostility issues due to language and cultural difference. As health organization with 1000 employees lacked the process to protect employees going on international visit, the report presented a stepwise systematic procedure to implement Health and Safety process surrounding international travel in organization. This initiates from the risk assessment proces s to elimination of risk before by means of training and guidance followed by tracking employees when they have left for the foreign country. The above mentioned plan is just a structural framework according to which an organization can set up procedure for Health and Safety, however it is recommended to change the duty of care programs according to location of travel, place of work, types of employees and organizational culture. Reference Brown, T., Anthony, J.J., Chalfant, S., Gingrave, M. and Vines, B., Hartford Fire Insurance Company, 2017.Safety evaluation and feedback system and method. U.S. Patent 9,563,919. CDC Traveler's Health. 2017. Cdcfoundation.org. [online] Available at: https://www.cdcfoundation.org/businesspulse/travelers-health-infographic [Accessed 14 Jun. 2017]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013.CDC Health Information for International Travel 2014: The Yellow Book. Oxford University Press. Costa, M., Oberholzer-Riss, M., Hatz, C., Steffen, R., Puhan, M. and Schlagenhauf, P., 2015. Pre-travel health advice guidelines for humanitarian workers: A systematic review.Travel medicine and infectious disease,13(6), pp.449-465. Harvey, B. 2013, "Safety While Working Abroad",Professional Safety,vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 20. Hood, J., Hardy Jr, B. and Simpson, L., 2016.Workers' compensation and employee protection laws in a nutshell. West Academic. Leder, K., Steffen, R., Cramer, J.P. and Greenaway, C., 2015. Risk assessment in Travel medicine: how to obtain, interpret, and use risk data for informing pre?travel advice.Journal of travel medicine,22(1), pp.13-20. Leggat, P.A. and Zuckerman, J.N., 2015. Pre?travel health risk assessment. InEssential Travel Medicine(pp. 23-34). John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Mkel, L., De Cieri, H. and Mockaitis, A., 2015. International Business Traveler, Is Work Always on Your Mind? An Investigation of the Relationship Between Sources of Social Support and Satisfaction with Work-Related International Travel: The Moderating Role of Over-Commitment. InWork and Family Interface in the International Career Context(pp. 181-195). Springer International Publishing. Mkel, L., Kinnunen, U. and Suutari, V., 2015. Work?To?Life Conflict and Enrichment Among International Business Travelers: The Role of International Career Orientation.Human Resource Management,54(3), pp.517-531. Many Firms Fail to Protect Workers Traveling, Living Abroad. 2017.SHRM. Retrieved 14 June 2017, from https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/risk-management/pages/protect-expat-workers-overseas.aspx Smith, E.N., 2014.Workplace Security Essentials: A Guide for Helping Organizations Create Safe Work Environments. Elsevier. The Singapore Employers Duty of Care on Workplace Safety Health when Employees Travel. 2017. [online] www.internationalosfoundation.org. Available at: https://file:///C:/Users/admin/Downloads/Singapore%20Employers%20Duty%20Of%20Care%20%20a%20summary.pdf [Accessed 14 Jun. 2017]. Top five risks for employees travelling overseas - People Management Magazine Online. 2017. Www2.cipd.co.uk. [online] Available at: https://www2.cipd.co.uk/pm/peoplemanagement/b/weblog/archive/2016/08/05/top-five-risks-for-employees-travelling-overseas.aspx [Accessed 14 Jun. 2017].
Tuesday, March 31, 2020
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Essay Verbal and Nonverbal communication When we are communicating with verbal communication this involves a lot of the spoken word. Some principals of verbal communication are how you deliver your message, the tone you use, and the pitch of your voice. These principals are important in so many ways. When you are speaking with verbal communication it is important that you are confident in your message and be sure you know what you are talking about. Getting feedback in your communication is key to having a good conversation with others. If you are trying to communicate with someone that is hard of hearing it is important to speak clearly and slowly. Depending on the person that is receiving the message you want to speak in a tone that they understand and the communication that they would understand as well. If you are continuously having to yell at someone this message may not get across how you want it to. A message can be misunderstood because they are focused on the pitch and tone of your voice and they may think your upset about the topic you are trying to discuss. We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal and Nonverbal Communication specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal and Nonverbal Communication specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal and Nonverbal Communication specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Empathy is a good way to communicate with others. Understanding where they are coming from in the conversation will help with the delivery of your message. If you are on the receiving end of the communication be sure to ask questions just to make sure that you understand the message that the sender is sending. Nonverbal communication has a few principals and these are that when communicating with someone the key is the facial expressions, body language, eye contact, and open posture. These principals are a good way to communicate with someone nonverbally. When communicating without the spoken word the next best thing is the facial expressions that we use. These facial expression are what the receiver seeÃ¢â¬â¢s when a sender is trying to communicate without words. Your body language is another part of communication that people use often when they are trying to get a point across to another. Many people use their hands when they talk and this is considered visual communication. Eye contact can be used but we need to be careful how when we use the eye contact because other cultures may view this as disrespectful and they may feel that we are invading their space. Your personal appearance is another good principal to understand when using nonverbal communication, people judge things by their covers and not what they know about them personally. Three good principals that are important for an effective communication are that you should make your message clear, confident, and delivered properly. These principals are key to having a good message getting across to the receiver of the message. Having clear communication is the key to having someone understand your message and the clearer the message the better the communication will go. These three important principals work for verbal and nonverbal communication. I have had numerous communication mishaps in my life. One that really sticks out to me was this one time I was at work and a patient had asked me to do something for them, and I replied ok no problem. Now I usually just say that all the time because I am completely deaf in my right ear. So when I think I hear something a certain way really I am hearing the wrong thing. Anyways, this patient asked if I was going to give her a shower and I thought she wanted me to blow dry her hair. This misunderstanding really upset her because she thought that I just wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t paying any attention to what she had said. Miscommunications happen often in the care homes because every patient is different and each one communicates differently. To promote good communication principals to the workplace it is always good to set an example for others to communicate better with others. Be sure to inform the employees that getting your message across to others is important, but it just as important on how you deliver the message to others. Having good eye contact with others is a good way to start a communication process. Tell the employees to ask questions if they do not understand something and let them know it is ok to ask question. Your personal appearance is good to have when you are using nonverbal communication in the work place. Technology has come a long way from 30 years ago. Most of the times people in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world use email, facebook, or text message as a communication tool. You see less and less people communicating verbally. You do not get to use any of these principals in the new technology of communication, there is less eye contact, you really canÃ¢â¬â¢t see someone posture or facial expression, and body language is not clear.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Smoking Essay Example Smoking Essay Smoking Essay There are a lot Of people smoking outside the ML Center (where there are no smoking signs on each of the benches), on the path between Davies Hall and tat classrooms, in the liberal art breezeways, in front of the theater box office, at the isle between Davies Hall and the Ranch House, and many other places around campus. I dont understand why smokers are being so ignorant while other peoples health is at stake because of the smoke. There are a lot of people that come to ARC, such as young adults, adults, elders, children, and pregnant women, and all of them could be victims of second-hand smoke because of the smokers ignorance. Smoking is not good for your health; smoking could harm nearly every organ of your body. According to Better Health, smokers have a high rate of developing heart disease, stroke, and cancer. The most common cancer that happens because of smoking is lung cancer, but this fact doesnt rule out the possibility that you may be exposed to other cancers, such as cancers of the cent,ix, liver, stomach, and many other cancers. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, smoking causes general adverse effects on the body. Smoking can decrease your immune systems ability to function, decrease bone density, and decrease the quality of sperm. Even people who smoke less than five cigarettes a day can have early signs of cardiovascular disease. Not only smokers can develop these diseases, but victims of second-hand smoke can also develop these diseases. Smoking is also very dangerous for pregnant women because it will affect the babys health before and after birth. The baby can be stillborn, have low birth weight, or can be disabled. Thesis:] Smokers should not smoke in inappropriate places at ARC because it will cause bad effects for the smokers and the victims-of-second-hand-smokes health. There were several ARC students that I asked why they smoke, and they said because they want to. They feel cool, manly, handsome, and good when they smoke. Then, I asked why they smoke where there were no smoking sign around, and they also said because they want to. They said that they were American, they live in the U nited States, and United States is a country of freedom, thus they can do whatever they want. Even though united States is a country of freedom, and we live in the United States, we need to remember that there are limits on every freedom. There are laws that you need to follow even when you live in the United States. Since you are a student at ARC, you have to follow the regulations of ARC. For those who are unaware or ignorant, let me tell you, there are banners and signs scattered throughout the campus. These banners and signs are there not for decoration, but they are there to inform you, and you need to follow them. In addition, there is a legitimate law that forbids you to smoke at certain areas e ARC; you can ask the police, you can see the catalog online (ARC 2014/2015 Catalog, 40), or you can buy the catalog at the bookstore. Even when some smokers that talked to knew about the no smoking sigma they still didnt follow the rules. One of them said, There are so many people hat are smoking over here, and no one got arrested. So why should I bother about the sign? believe this kind of statement came out because they only think about themselves without regarding other people. So, if other people break a rule does that mean it is okay to break the rule? The answer is no. You should realize that there is a reason for every rule. There are places where you can smoke, and there are some places where you cant. You should be more responsible of yourself rather than following other peoples wrong behavior. You should understand that our police cant take care of you very time. The police capability is very limited. You should help the police by following the rules and not smoking in inappropriate places. I do understand that a lot of people were smoking to relieve their stress and/or anxiety. There were several smokers that said that they smoke right outside of the classroom because they were stressed, and they didnt have time to go to a more appropriate place to smoke. I understand their feelings because I have experienced stress too, but it didnt mean that whenever got stressed I have to smoke. You should have realized that there were people inside the lassoer, and if you smoked right after you got out from class, your smoke could got into the classroom. The classroom is an enclosed place where air circulation is very limited. Your smoke would be inhaled by all the people which were inside the room, they would instantly became victims of second-hand smoke, and they could also experience shortness of breath. Know that all you wanted was to make you feel better, but dont torture other people in order to make you feel better. Cant make you quit smoking, but urge you t stop smoking. If you feel stressed or uneasy before or after class, and you ant to relieve your stress or anxiety, you can chew some gum instead of smoking. If you cant quit smoking, but you want to have less risks of health problems, you could try the electric cigarette. The smoke from the electric cigarette is less dangerous and odorless, and the nicotine contained in the electric cigarette is less than the regular cigarette. If you dont want to change your smoking behavior, I suggest you to ask the campus faculty to provide you several designated smoking areas at ARC. However, there are also several places that can be your legitimate smoking areas such as the benches in front f the Student Service Center, the benches beside the pick-up/drop-off spot near the Davies Hall, the park in front of the bookstore, and the park next to the Administration Building. By smoking at the designated areas, you can smoke freely without disturbing other people, and the people who dont smoke can stay away from your designated smoking areas so that they wont be a victims of second-hand smoke. Hope that you are willing to do any of the options that I mentioned above. By doing that, you will not create any victims of second-hand smoke, and you will not torture yourself and others tit your smoke.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
National Romanticism in Music - Essay Example Nationalism occurred in the nineteenth century and there was an interesting integration of Romanticism and Nationalism (Miles, 1985). On the one hand, this weird conglomerate is beyond music, but on the other hand, the glimpses of these two trends concerned music as well as other spheres of human activities. The oppressed nations needed inspiration, but they were looking for a place of sentiments. Nationalism can be interpreted as the leading idea of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit. A feeling of elevation and progress can be heard in the musical developments of the composers around the world. Nationalism and Romanticism in Music Gradually, nationalists were transformed into the Ã¢â¬Å"citizens of the worldÃ¢â¬ . Nationalism was more aggressive and the oppressed nations wanted to have some changes. The change in music was obvious. After 1860 the leading worldÃ¢â¬â¢s composers managed to reflect their feelings and emotions, combined them with inspirations of their nations and create musical masterpieces. National music in different countries always reflects peculiarities and specific features of nations. For example, the Italian composers have been always recognized as opera creators. Puccini is a great opera composer. The greatest oriental motifs of Madam Butterfly, the comedy of Gianni Schicci and the Romance of La Boheme reflect the uniqueness of the composer (Miles, 1985). He composed his operas with the greatest inspiration and he showed his outstanding masterful skills. The period of national Romanticism flourished in Italy, but there were not outstanding talents of this period in England. The personality of the Baroque composer Henry Purcell can be mentioned as the creator of unique melodies and authentic music.Ã